DIY do-it-yourself drilling rig: making a home-made drill for drilling wells

Drilling a well in the area is a large-scale task. The services of a professional team are not affordable for any homeowner, but hiring “handicraftsmen” is, in most cases, only throwing money away.

It is easier to do all the work yourself: you work diligently for yourself and costs less. In addition, if a drilling rig is made by hand, the costs will seem literally ridiculous compared to the actual prices of drilling.

What is the best way to drill a well?

Beginner drillers need to be patient and get ready to do the not the easiest job.

You will need tools and inexpensive materials for the manufacture of the installation and the drill, as well as common sense and a couple of friends to help.

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Purpose of the drilling rig
Purpose of the drilling rig
The main elements of the tower
The main elements of the tower
Devices for coiling cable
Devices for coiling cable
Frame making material
Frame making material
The most common form - tripod
The most common form - tripod
Retractable boom drill with supports
Retractable boom drill with supports
Projectiles for percussion cable drilling
Projectiles for percussion cable drilling
Use at auger and core drilling
Use at auger and core drilling

Drilling wells is a work akin to art, because the result is unpredictable, and each structure is unique. The task is to make a long and narrow shaft in the ground to the aquifer and lower the casing into it to strengthen the walls of the mine. The process will have to extract a lot of soil, and this soil can be very different: from pieces of granite to sand mixed with water.

Much depends on the depth of the aquifer. Sometimes you need to go less than 10 meters, and sometimes the well reaches several tens or even hundreds of meters. All this affects the methods of drilling and its timing. To arrange a well, there are two main ways: shock-cable and rotational, in modern interpretation of the screw.

Scheme for the manufacture of the simplest drilling rig
Self-made drilling machines for manual drilling are constructed according to a single scheme. The rig is performed as a tripod.

In the first case, drilling is carried out using a narrow and heavy projectile, called zhelonka.It is suspended on a rope or cable, which is thrown over a block attached to a tripod. To pull the drill out of the mine using a winch with a motor, although if desired it can be done manually.

The shell is dropped several times to the bottom of the mine from a height of several meters. It loosens the soil, part of which falls into the cavity of the zhelonka. After deepening into the ground by about 0.5 m, the auger is removed from the trunk. The shell is cleared and again thrown into the mine. The process is repeated until it reaches the water.

Shock-rope method is very old, it has been used for centuries, if not millennia. It is relatively easy to make the bowl, you will need sheet steel 4-5 mm thick or thick-walled tube Ø 110-120 mm, as well as skills in working with the welding machine. And it is possible even to work as a small bowl alone, although with an assistant it will go much faster.

The benefits of percussion drilling are not only in its availability. The shell is reliable, it passes almost any soil except rocks. If it is necessary to overcome a layer of sandy loam or loam, the shell is replaced with the appropriate size with a glass — a narrow cylinder without a valve at the bottom.

How to make a rack for the rig with your own hands
The shell is used to lift all types of non-cohesive soils: sands, rubble, gravel and pebble deposits. It is used to clean the bottom of the well and during the operation of production to remove sludge

The glass effectively destroys the clay rocks, which, due to their own ability to compact themselves and stick to the walls, are held in its cavity. In manual rock-jet drilling, the core and glass alternate as needed.

As soon as the passage of the sap essential decreases, it means she met the roof of loam or sandy loam, which is why she was changed for a glass. As soon as the soil destroyed in the well ceases to linger in the cavity of the well, it is exchanged for a shelf.

In one “session” it is possible to deepen the mine by a meter, although more often this indicator is more modest, about 20-40 cm. In this case, the drawback of the shock cable method is a long time. On clay plastic soils it is more efficient to use auger or otherwise serpentine drill.

Hand Drill Bits
In manual drilling, it is often necessary to combine shock-cable methods with rotational ones, therefore it is better to stock up on the minimum set of projectiles shown in the diagram.

The working tool of the auger is a column of rods with a drill at the lower end. The tool is literally screwed into the ground, which is partially held on its blades.

Periodically, the screw, together with the loosened soil, is removed to the day surface, and the face with the collapsed heap is cleaned with a scaffold. Then again they are drilled with a screw, penetrating deeper into the earth with each turn.

Rods gradually increase with the deepening of the mine. First, the length of the drill string is increased by fastening a single rod. When its upper part is almost aligned with the wellhead, attach the second, then the third, etc.

The drill can be rotated manually or with the help of an electric motor rotor. To keep the rod in the correct vertical position, in industrial mobile drilling rigs a vertical frame fixed on the frame is used. By this principle, you can make your own machine.

Well Drilling Rig
The diagram shows a variant of a self-made drilling rig, as well as the result: a relatively compact device for drilling wells

Simultaneously with the deepening, the wellbore is cased, i.e.a pipe is installed in the drilled production, the diameter of which is 1-2 cm larger than the similar size of the projectile. The links of the casing are connected in a single structure by screwing or welding.

If a large amount of water is supplied to a cased well under pressure, the bottom can be cleaned without using the zhelonka. This method has been successfully applied by professional teams. Water blurs loosened soil and washes it to the surface.

The drilling fluid accelerates the work several times, but everything around will be flooded with water mixed with mud. Yes, and stony ground in this way will not pass. All this must be considered even before proceeding to the manufacture of its own drilling rig. In addition, you need to decide on your goals and objectives.

If you need a unit for the construction of only one or two wells, you can not particularly care about the accuracy of execution. But a solid and durable drilling rig can be a significant reason to start your own drilling business.

Production of the shock and cable drilling rig

A tripod with a small bowl - the design is simple, like all brilliant.Its size can be estimated "by eye", especially accurate engineering calculations are not needed here. For example, the height of the tripod, on which the shell will be fixed, should be about a meter more than this drill. If drilling operations are carried out in the basement of the house, the dimensions of the structure will be limited by the height of the ceiling.

Drilling hole
Shot drilling is carried out with the help of a heavy projectile - zhelonka. It is thrown down from a height, the ground collapses and fills the cavity inside the yolk, after which the device is removed and cleaned.

In open space, the bowl can be hung up and higher to increase the impact force. But do not make it too high, it is not effective. The pit itself should be quite heavy. To effectively loosen the soil, on its sole it is better to make notches or grind off the sharp edge.

The optimum for drilling is the length of the projectile within 1.8 - 2.2 meters, so that the driller can freely reach the top of the drill for fastening or disconnecting the cable. However, in manual drilling, the best length of the yolk is 1.0 - 1.2 m. This size allows you to reach the bottom of the projectile with your hand, if it is not emptied when sticking loam, for example.

Drilling hole
In the shock-cable drilling is used the scab length of about 1.2 - 2.0 meters. The shell must be heavy enough to break the ground and pull it to the surface in large quantities.

The sill is most often made of a piece of metal pipe, the desired thickness of the metal is 4-6 mm. To make such a drilling device, you must perform the following operations:

  1. Prepare a pipe of suitable size.
  2. Make a valve at the bottom of the projectile.
  3. Weld on top of the protective mesh.
  4. Boil the handle or “ears” to secure the rope.
  5. Sharpen the lower part of the projectile or weld a few “teeth” from pieces of metal or from pieces of thick wire.
  6. Make a tripod of metal pipes.
  7. Install the unit, winch and engine to lift the projectile from the mine.
  8. Tie a rope to the sink and assemble the structure.

Valve zhelonki deserves special attention. In shells of small diameter, a ball valve is used. A metal ball with a diameter of slightly more than half the diameter of the choke will be suitable for its role. If there is no suitable ball, it can be made from scrap materials.For example, a mixture of lead shot and epoxy resin is often used for these purposes; some kind of children's ball of plastic or rubber plays the role of a casting mold.

Petal valve for zhelonka
The flap valve of the zhelonka consists of a round piece of metal that blocks the lumen at the bottom of the glass, as well as the spring that holds it in the closed state

Bottom weld washer with a hole whose diameter is smaller than the size of the ball, so that it does not fly out. For the same purpose, at the top, at some distance from the protective grid, they put a stopper - a piece of metal that limits the movement of the ball upwards. The wire grille does not allow large pieces of soil to fall out of the gut.

The ball of the valve should not fall below the level of sharp edges or metal teeth, otherwise it will dampen the force of impact. On the other hand, the “teeth” should not be made too long, otherwise they will not allow part of the soil to get inside the shell.

A window is cut out in the upper third of the body. It will be needed when the full sludge need to be cleaned from the ground inside.

Ball valve for zhelonka
For the manufacture of ball valves zhelonka need a metal ball with a diameter of about 60 mm.Such an element can be obtained from a large bearing.

Another valve variant is the petal. It is made of a piece of metal. The flap valve looks like a round door mounted on a spring at the bottom of the yolk. When the projectile moves downward, the valve opens under the pressure of the soil, and then the spring closes it and holds the soil inside. Sometimes such a valve is compacted with a piece of rubber, but this is not necessary.

If, when drilling with a self-made shell, it turns out that it captures too little of the soil, you may just need to fix the structure a little. Sometimes you need to squash a little at the bottom of the device. If the projectile was too light, it should be weighed down. To do this, the upper part of the gland is sometimes poured with concrete. But it is also possible to simply attach an additional load on the mobile connection from above.

Tripod for zhelonka
A tripod for percussion-wire drilling can be made from a metal pipe, but durable wood is suitable for short-term use, for example, a beam of 150-200 mm

On viscous soils, a variety of billow without a valve may be effective. Dense soil is packed inside the projectile and held there in a natural way.Scrub such a device through a narrow vertical hole on the side. If there is a possibility and a need, you should make two different yolks to use them on different soils. The shell is also used to clean the finished well from sand and dirt. But in this situation there is no need to make such a large projectile, and a device with a length of about 0.8 -1.0 meters will do.

How to build auger drilling rig

The frame of such an installation can be made in the form of a tripod, but more often it is made of vertical guides mounted on a stand and connected from above by a horizontal structure. The frame must securely hold the drill string from the projectile and drill rods while extracting them from their borehole.

Drilling rig layout
The diagram clearly shows the device of the drilling rig on a metal frame with a swivel, a drill, an electric winch and a gear motor (+)

The drill is made as follows:

  1. To a segment of a narrow metal pipe about 1.5 meters long, a couple of turns of metal strip are welded to make a semblance of a screw thread.
  2. To the edges of the screw attach knives, cutting edges which must be at an angle to the horizontal.
  3. Knives are sharpened.
  4. A tee with a female thread is screwed or welded to the upper edge of the drill.
  5. Harvest pieces of metal pipe of the same diameter. as a pipe auger to further increase the length of the drill string. This is a barbell.
  6. On these pieces, pipes are threaded to connect them or drill a hole for fixing with a locking pin.

However, for increasing the length of the drill rod and quite successfully used a coupling or locking connection. The drilling tower can be made of metal pipes, channels or of wood. The main thing is that it reliably held the drill string.

In the upper part of the frame install the unit, which is connected to the winch for lifting the string of pipe with a drill. It is believed that the tower is necessary only when drilling wells more than eight meters deep. A small structure can be drilled without it, but the work will still be difficult.

Increasing the length of the drill rod significantly significantly weights the column, so for its lifting using an electric motor with a winch. If it is intended to perform “wet” drilling, the drill is also rotated using an electric motor.Experts believe that the best option for these purposes is a typical 2.2 kW device for 60-70 revolutions, which can be powered from a standard 220 V socket. Models of type 3MP 31.5, 3MP 40 or 3MP 50 may be suitable.

A swivel is an element by means of which the driving moment is transmitted from an electric motor to a drill rod. Through it also perform the supply of drilling fluid in the mine. Drill rods are fixed to the movable part of this device. For drilling mud is a special sealed pipe.

Swivel Circuit
The diagram shows the design of the swivel for a small-sized drilling rig. A flushing fluid (+) is fed through the side nozzle into the shaft.

Since the swivel is constantly moving while drilling, it can break very quickly if the performance is poor. To prevent this from happening, you should observe two rules: use only high-strength steel to make it and ensure the minimum gap between static and moving parts of the device.

As already mentioned, there are no ultra-strict rules for self-drilling rigs for wells.Most often, a hybrid structure is constructed, which allows simultaneous use of both the shock-cable method and rotational drilling. In this design, the same frame is arranged, allowing you to switch from one method to another without making any design changes.

Combined Drilling Rig
This is a variant of the drilling rig of the combined type, it can be used for both drum and auger drilling.

If there is a desire to do professional drilling, then it is better to buy all the details on the side, rather than do it yourself, or rent it. You can order all these items from an experienced turner. You will need to buy a reliable electric motor with a gearbox, and a motor-pump, a sleeve and a hose, if you intend to perform work using a hydraulic valve.

It is better to manufacture the frame and the drill after the swivel, the electric motor and the winch are acquired. This will allow all parts of the installation to fit correctly and quickly to each other. In order to be able to increase the longer bars on the drill, it is recommended to make a frame with a margin of about 3.3 m. For the manufacture of the swivel and the locks, you should use quality steel, since these parts of the structure bear the highest loads in the drilling process.

Drill Swivel
The swivel for a self-made drilling rig can also be made independently, but it will be easier and more reliable to use the industrial model of such a device.

Hardened steel is not very well suited for the manufacture of improvised drilling rigs, because after processing it needs additional grinding, it is better to take ordinary steel. On the rods it is best to use trapezoidal, not tapered threads. It has sufficient strength characteristics, and any turner can cope with such a thread. But for the manufacture of rods with tapered threads have to look for a specialist.

For drilling to a depth of more than 30 meters, it is recommended to make rods of pipes with a wall of 5-6 mm thick. Conventional pipes with a wall of 3.5 mm can not withstand such loads. For the manufacture of the drill, it is better to take not the alloyed steel, but the usual one, so that there are no problems during the welding process.

For drilling hard soils it makes sense to use high-strength industrial drill bit. Good effect gives the use of a projectile with three blades. During its operation, cyclic rotation is used, which makes it possible to loosen the soil as efficiently as possible.

Drilling tools for manual work are different in design. There are spoon and coil models, as well as drill bit. Spoon drills are effective on plastic soils: sandy loam, loam, clay. The cutter of such a drill is usually made in the form of a bucket. Such a drill can be made independently from a pipe of a suitable diameter.

On dense loam can also be used serpentine drill. This device resembles a corkscrew in its design, and the cutting element is a forked, so-called swallow tail. As an alternative to the kite borax, you can use an analogue of the ice drill, but it may not be as effective.

On hard rocks, a drill bit with a sharpening angle of 110-130 degrees shows itself best. The bit can have a very different shape, since it is calculated on the destruction of rock formations of various degrees of hardness.

Drill bit
The drill bit is suitable for working on hard and soft soils. Such a drill can be made from scrap materials

For drilling complex geological sections, it is sometimes better to use drilling in two stages with two different drills. First, drilling is carried out with a narrow drill, with a diameter of about 80 mm.After such exploratory drilling, work is performed by a larger diameter drill bit to obtain a well of the required size.

Winch lifting capacity must be at least one ton. In addition to the electric winch, some masters immediately put another, mechanical. It copes more effectively in some cases, for example, if the casing is jammed. For electric motor and winch, it is recommended to use two different control panels.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

A visual overview of the self-made drilling rig is presented in this video:

Here is a variant of a combined type drilling rig for percussion and auger drilling:

In this video, you can see the version of Zhelonka for cable-hole drilling:

Self-made installation for drilling wells - not too complicated unit, leaving room for the work of engineering thought. But it should be remembered that the nodes and mechanisms of such a device in the drilling process are experiencing significant loads. Therefore, the materials must be durable, and the work must be done as best as possible.

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