First aid for fractures
A fracture is a violation of the integrity of the bone,arising from a disease or mechanical attack. Fracture, unfortunately, quite a frequent phenomenon, from which no one is immune. Therefore, each person should have the skills of first aid in case of fractures. First you need to establish the fact of the fracture. More detailed information on this issue you can get here: "How to determine the fracture?". How to determine the fracture should everyone know.
On how fast and how high qualityFirst aid is provided for fractures, the patient's recovery is quick and there are no complications. First aid for fractures consists in the following: providing the necessary assistance immediately after determining the fact of the fracture, preparing the victim for transportation and transporting him to a medical institution.
What to do in case of a fracture?
- Once a fact of a fracture is established,emergency medical care, and before her arrival, the first aid should be provided to the victim. It is undesirable to once again move the patient. You can do this only if there is no possibility to provide first aid at the scene.
- Determine the type of fracture: open or closed. With a closed fracture, the skin is not damaged, and if it is open, the integrity of the skin is compromised. When the fracture is open, the skin should be treated with an antiseptic, apply an aseptic bandage. Strong bleeding is stopped by the application of a tourniquet or a pressure bandage. The harness is imposed for two hours in the summer, and in the winter for one hour. When applying a bundle, a note must be attached with the time of its overlap.
- To prevent the adverse effects of a traumatic shock, the victim should be given hot tea, covered with a blanket.
- To reduce pain, you can give the patient non-narcotic analgesics. Apply an ice pack to the damaged area of the body.
- To relieve the neuropsychic tension, the patient can take soothing drops.
- Before transportation to a medical facilityit is necessary to immobilize the damaged part of the body as much as possible. For the immobilization use special transport tires. If they are absent, they use improvised means: boards, rods, skis, sticks, etc. For reliable immobilization of bones use two tires, which are fixed to the limb from different sides. It is also possible to achieve immobilization by bandaging the damaged part of the body to a healthy one.
Rules of transport immobilization
- tires must reliably fix the damaged area of the body;
- Before applying the tire, the damaged area should be covered with a cloth;
- it is necessary to fix two joints lower and higher and fracture sites;
- do not severely pinch the limb, so as not to damage the nerves and not disturb the blood circulation;
- at fractures of a femur fix all joints of the bottom finiteness;
- with a fracture of the upper limbs, they should be fixed in a bent position, supported by a bandage;
- if a fracture happened in the ankle joint region - place the tire from the upper third of the shin to the foot on the two sides of the shin, to the foot, pribintuyte board;
- at a fracture of the knee joint, one tire is placed behind the upper third of the thigh to the lower third of the shin;
- if there was a fracture of the ribs, you need to tightly bandage your chest.
Transportation of the patient to a medical institutionpreferably carried out on a special ambulance. Patients with fractures of the upper limbs should be transported sitting, and with fractures of the pelvic bones, lower extremities, the spine - in the prone position. Transport patients with fractures should be very careful not to move the bone fragments.
Fracture of the foot: what to do?
A damaged leg should be given the correctposition. Carefully pull the leg, taking one hand by the toes of the foot, the other - by the heel. You should also take off your shoes. If the fracture is open, then in no case should you put the fragments yourself. Treat the wound with an antiseptic solution and apply a pressure bandage. Then we proceed to immobilization.
The bus must be fixed at least twojoints. With a fracture of the shin, you need to fix the knee and ankle joints. With a hip fracture, the hip, knee and ankle joints are fixed. Before applying the tire, it must be adjusted to the size of the damaged limb. Transportation of such patients to a medical institution should be carried out on stretchers.
Rib fracture: what to do?
Fracture of the ribs can occur when falling onHard object, with chest compression, with impact. Fractures can be one-sided and two-sided, single and multiple. The risk of fracture of the ribs is associated with damage to the internal organs.
To eliminate pain syndrome, the patient shouldtake an anesthetic. It is better to do intramuscular injection of analgin. It is necessary to provide the patient access to fresh air. If the ribs are broken, the fixing pressure bandage should be placed on the chest of the victim. You can use a towel or bandage as a bandage. Apply the bandage during exhalation.
To prevent traumatic shock,shelter the victim, give a warm drink. Transportation of patients with fracture of the ribs should be done with a leg half bent with knees bent at the knees. Having studied this article, you will already know what to do after the fracture, and you will be able to provide the victim with the necessary assistance if you become a witness of such an incident.