Forage crops: cereals, beans. List of fodder crops
Agriculture can not be imagined withoutanimal husbandry. Here you can distinguish goat breeding, poultry farming, horse breeding, cattle breeding (dairy, meat, milk and meat), sheep breeding, rabbit breeding, pig breeding, beekeeping, dog breeding and other less common branches. And if a person decided to engage in animal husbandry, then first he needs to think about how he will feed his farm. For this purpose fodder crops of plants are quite suitable. They can be grown on their own so that they do not spend money on the purchase of animal products. It is about plants that can become food, and now we will talk.
Let's start with the most famous.
Forage crops. The list of plants considered in the article
- A stern watermelon.
- The forage gourd.
- The stern zucchini.
Melon fodder crops are, first of all, watermelon, zucchini and pumpkin.
This is an annual plant of the pumpkin family. The weight of his fetus is from 10 to 30 kg. Feed these fruits to cattle in fresh or silageed form. Stern watermelon contains proteins (0.3 kg per 100 kg of product), carbohydrates that are easily digested, that is, glucose, fructose and sucrose, folic acid, pectin (0.36-0.75 kg per 100 kg of product), and vitamins D, A, C, B and iron.
This plant also belongs to the family of pumpkin and is one-year old. Fetal weight reaches 30 kg.
The fruits of this plant have a large amount of sugar (12 kg per 100 kg of product), proteins (0.4 kg per 100 kg of fruit), vitamins E, PP, C, as well as provitamin A.
This product is great as a feed for cows, pigs and chickens. In the first, it increases the fat content of milk and increases its number, and the latter, when feeding pumpkin, begin to carry more eggs.
Melon fodder crops are also zucchini. They sing earlier than the plants listed above, which is their undoubted advantage. Moreover, they can even be fed to animals unripe, pre-steamed or chopped.
Marrows - melons, which contain proteins in the amount of 0.7-1 kg per 100 kg of product. These substances are not only in the fruit, but also in the tops of the plant (0.8 kg per 100 kg).
Cereal fodder crops
This group is primarily rye,barley and oats. All grain crops have a number of disadvantages. This is a small amount of calcium, necessary for the normal development of the animal, and also a relatively low digestibility of the proteins contained in the grains.
In 100 kg of grain of this plant contains 10.1 kg of proteins, 2.3 kg of fiber, 1.9 kg of fat, 66.1 kg of BEV (nitrogen-free extractives), 1.8 kg of ash, and 16 kg of water.
Rye animals do not like to eat in large quantities. This is due to the tart taste it possesses. Also eating too much rye can lead to digestive system disorders. This is especially true for freshly harvested grains. Therefore, in the ration of cattle or pigs, the amount of rye eaten should not exceed 30% of the total volume of food.
In addition, it is necessary to take into account the factor thatgrains of this plant contains a fairly small amount of digestible proteins. This should be compensated by the availability in the diet of protein-rich foods, for example, it can be leguminous fodder crops.
100 kg of barley grains contain 10.8 kg of proteins, 4.8 kg of fiber, 2.2 kg of fat, 65.6 kg of BEV, 2.8 kg of ash and 13 kg of water.
This plant has a lot of flaws. They can be considered low content of calcium, phosphorus, vitamins, as well as insufficient protein content. The amount of fiber, on the contrary, increased, so this food should be used only in combination with products in which this substance is low (wheat, corn).
However, despite all the negative aspects, barley is widely used as a feed for farm animals, as it helps to make meat and milk more quality.
Young piglets can give the seeds of this plant in a fried form, and pigs - in the ground. Dairy cows are often fed barley or flour.
100 kg of oats contain 9.1 kg of proteins, 10.4 kg of fiber, 4.9 kg of fat, 57.3 kg of BEV, 4 kg of ash and 13 kg of water.
A film of oat grains contains a very large amount of fiber, which worsens the digestibility of this product.
Standard this food is considered for horses. In the ration of cattle and pigs, it can be 40%, birds - 30%. However, it can not be given to cash cows during the production of oil, as well as to pigs at the last stage of fattening.
Bean crops as a feed for farm animals
Leguminous fodder crops, nameswhich are known to everyone, are soy and lupine.
The grains of each of these plants have a huge amount of proteins. This is especially true for soy.
The chemical composition of beans is approximately the same. For 100 kg of soy is 33.6 kg of protein, 5.7 kg of fiber, 17.4 kg of fat, 26.8 kg of BEV, 4.6 kg of ash and 11 kg of water. In 100 kg of lupine contains 27.5 kg of proteins, 5.3 kg of fat, 12.8 kg of fiber, 35.8 kg of BEV, 2.7 kg of ash and 14 kg of water.
Forage crops, the list of which is given above,are valuable not only for high protein content, but also for a large number of amino acids, B vitamins and ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, copper, iron and zinc.
But despite their nutritional value and benefit, the percentagebeans in the diet should not exceed 25%, since an excessive amount of this product causes problems with the gastrointestinal tract, including bloating, and can provoke miscarriage in a pregnant female.
The most common and often usedbean fodder plant is soy. It has a large number of proteins that are close to animals, as well as amino acids, which ensure a normal metabolism in livestock.
Use these beans as a bird foodit is recommended, only after preliminary subjected to their thermal processing. However, it should be noted that the use of too high temperatures leads to a decrease in the quality of the product. Unprocessed soy beans can be given to cattle.
Lupine exists in three varieties: white, yellow and blue. Yellow and white varieties are sweet, they differ from blue with less alkaloid content (0.002-0.12 kg per 100 kg of product, in contrast to 3.87 kg in blue). The largest number of proteins among the three species is yellow lupine. Also all varieties of this plant contain essential amino acids, which the animal does not produce independently. In these grains also there are vitamins and microelements.
The best option is the use of lupine beans inThe quality of feed for pigs, in the diet of which there is a lot of potatoes. The disadvantage of this forage crop can be considered high fiber content, which should be taken into account when calculating the amount of this feed in the ration of farm animals. In the menu of young piglets, lupine beans should be no more than 18-20% of the total food, adult pigs - no more than 12%.
When deciding to introduce this food into the animal's dietwe must also pay attention to the fact that, due to the content of alkaloids in it, it gives milk and oil a bitter taste. Also, the ingestion of these substances in large quantities can cause digestive system disorders. Prevent these negative phenomena can be by pre-treatment of beans. To get rid of alkaloids, lupine grain should be soaked in cold water, then steamed for an hour and rinsed again. Processed food should be used within a day, otherwise it will deteriorate.
However, the shortcomings of this plant, associated with the content of alkaloids, are now eliminated by breeding varieties whose grains contain almost none of these substances.