Groundnut is actually from legumes
Hazelnut - herbaceous annual plantfrom a wide family of legumes. Usually it grows to a height of 25-40 cm. Its leaves are parodermiform with a small grooved cuttings. Flowers in short little-flowered brushes. Corolla five-petal, whitish or yellow, curved, calyx double-skinned. The elements of the flower die after fertilization, and the stalk and the ovary begin to grow, actively turning downward, penetrating into the soil where the fruits of the cocoon-shaped form develop from the ovary. Beans themselves are covered with a dense mesh pericarp with different number of seeds: 1 - 2 seeds (up to 5) in one or two interceptions. Usually the seeds are oblong, fleshy, 9 to 20 mm in size, with a brownish-red shell. Blossoms of earth almonds in June - July, and the fruits themselves ripen very quickly - in September - October.
Groundnuts - history and chemical composition
For the first time the culture of earth almonds appeared in 16at. in Brazil, where she accidentally ended up in China, and then in Europe. I got to Russia in the 18th century. In the field, groundnut was grown only in the Soviet era.
It is now widespread in some areas of Transcaucasia, the North Caucasus, in the south of the European part of Russia, and in Central Asia.
Chemical composition. In the useful seeds of peanuts, as scientists have shown,contains up to 52% fatty oil, in which glycerides are lignoceric, arachine, stearic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic, hypogeic, lauric, myristic, yikozenic, ceritinic and behenic acids. In addition to this oil, there are proteins in the seeds (up to 36%), globulins (up to 18%), glutenins (about 16%), "Arachine" konarachine, vitamins E, B1 (in the seed peel), pantothenic acid, biotin, etc. In the seed meal the alkaloid Arachine, choline and betaine are excreted.
Plant peanuts (peanut seeds) closer toend of April, sometimes in early May. He loves very well-burdened, but rather "rough" soil. This means that it should not be crushed too much, carefully grind lumps. The earth must be rich in calcium. If it is not enough, it is necessary to add 100-200 g to a 12 to 15 meter crop before sowing, and as much as before the shoots begin to bloom. The optimal acidity of the soil for a given plant is a level of 5.6 to 6.2.
Plant seeds at a depth of 3 cm at a distance of 15 cmfrom each other. Such a planting allows peanuts to much easier and more convenient to fight with weeds - thus, it does not allow them to grow normally, lowly bending to the ground. So with weeding, we get less work. Soil must be rich in organic. The set is common - humus, peat-manure mixture.
If there is a mixed forest nearby - it is advisable to bring and add forest land (as the upper loose layer, which is very easy to dig).
After 6 - 8 weeks. after they were planted, the peanut sprouts begin to bloom, to be pollinated. Ground nut is a self-pollinated plant. And after all the flowers are withered, you need to plant the plant like a potato, and pour abundantly organic mulch (from peat, sawdust, humus, sand) to the beds, with a layer no more than 5 cm. The ground for this mulch should be loose and lumpy.
While the peanuts are in the flowering process, water itit is necessary abundantly - every 3 to 4 days. When it is discolored, reduce watering considerably - once in 1 - 1.5 weeks. But if suddenly during this period there will be constant rains - all peanut plantings will be better sheltered.
Harvest, counting from the time of planting110 - 120 days. This is a fairly unpretentious plant. A noticeable yellowing of the leaves is a signal for urgent harvesting; it is better to dig the bushes with pitchforks. Be sure to arrange the ragged beans for drying in the shade. The dry shell of the beans breaks easily, while releasing very useful, nutritious and delicious nuts.
With the correct planting, as well as caring care, the peanut will delight you with its luxurious harvest.