How to make a reduction gear

January 23, 2014

Reducing gear do it yourselfAs a rule, in a good home workshop there are many devices and devices with which you can facilitate manual labor and improve work efficiency. For example, a reduction gear can be attributed to such mechanisms.
In most cases, it is needed in order to lower the speed of rotation of the output shaft or increase the torque on it. By design, the gearbox can be gear, worm or a combination, as well as single or multi-stage. Below we will look at how you can make an uncomplicated gearbox with your own hands.

How to make a reduction gear

    • One of the main and crucial parts of the reduction gearbox is its body. The correct position of the axles and shafts, the gaps between the gears and the alignment of the sockets for the thrust bearings depend on how properly it will be designed and manufactured. unreal.Therefore, it would be best to either pick up and finish a ready-made case to fit your needs, or make it welded from sheet steel. However, in this case, it must be remembered that during welding the metal can “lead”, and in order to preserve the coaxiality of the shafts, it is necessary to leave an allowance for the final processing of the bearing seats.
      Some craftsmen act differently - in order not to suffer from boring works, they weld the casing completely, and use pipe sections, which are set in the right position, and then finally fixed in place by bolts or welding, as bearing seats. In order to facilitate the maintenance of the gearbox, it is recommended to make the top cover of the housing removable, and at the bottom of it to provide a drain hole to drain the waste oil;

reduction pressure reducer

    • The shafts and gearbox axles serve as a support for gears. As a rule, in a single-stage gearbox, only shafts with rigid mounting of gears (landing gear, key or spline) are used. That is, both gears rotate with their shafts. The axis is used when we need to insert an intermediate gear into the gearbox (for example, to ensure the same direction of rotation of the input and output shafts).Such a gear wheel rotates freely with a minimum clearance on its axis, and from lateral displacement, it is fixed either by a thrust collar and a nut, or by locking split washers. As a material for shafts, it is recommended to use steel 10 ... 45, which has sufficient strength and lends itself well to machining;
    • The bearings in the gearbox serve as supports for the shafts and take up the loads that occur during the operation of the gearbox. The correctness and reliability of the gearbox as a whole depends on how well the bearings are selected. For a homemade gearbox, it is better to choose bearings from of a closed type, which are lubricated with grease and require a minimum of maintenance. Type of bearing depends on the type of perceived load. In the case of spur gears, conventional single or double row ball bearings will be sufficient. If there are helical gears or a worm gear in the gearbox, then an axial load is transmitted to the shaft (and, accordingly, the bearings). In this case, it is necessary to provide a roller or ball angular contact ball bearing;

how to make a reduction gear

  • Gears are equally important parts of the gearbox. It is through gearing that we change the frequency of rotation of the output shaft. For the manufacture of gears requires special metal-cutting equipment, so it will be economically feasible to use ready-made parts from the decommissioned units. It is precisely the geometrical dimensions of gears and their gear ratio that will determine the center distance between the shafts of the gearbox, as well as the layout of its body. During the installation of gears, it is important to correctly set the gap between them, since load capacity and noise level depends on this during the operation of the gearbox. For lubrication of gears is well suited liquid industrial oil brand I-20, which is poured to such a level as to cover the teeth of the lower gear. The remaining parts will be lubricated by spraying oil on the internal cavity of the gearbox;
  • Shaft seals are needed to prevent oil from leaking out of the gearbox. They are mounted on the shaft outlets and are usually fixed in bearing caps;
  • Safety coupling.In order to avoid accidental destruction of parts of the reducer from excessive load, a so-called safety clutch is usually used. It can be in the form of a cut-off pin, spring-loaded friction discs or bellows and is selected locally;
  • Bearing caps These parts greatly facilitate the installation and maintenance of bearing assemblies and can be deaf or through. You can pick them up from finished parts or grind on a lathe.

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