Masonry walls of aerated concrete
Masonry walls of aerated concrete: this article is very useful for those novice builders who are planning to build a country house fromaerated concrete. There is a step by step instruction.on laying walls of aerated concrete blocks, which also includes the work on their reinforcement device jumpers. The article also describes all types of foundations that should be erected under the buildings of cellular concrete.
How to choose a foundation for a house of aerated concrete
Aerated concrete blocks as well as their gas silicate counterparts have a low specific weight, which greatly reduces the strength requirements for the base of a house under construction. But anyway, before choosing a foundation, a number of geological surveys need to be performed. At the same time, regardless of the type of foundation, the height of the basement of the house of aerated concrete blocks must be at least 60-80 cm.
Under the house ofaerated concreteYou can arrange one of the following types of foundations (the bases are suitable for single-story, two-story houses of aerated concrete):
- Monolithic strip foundation (erected on homogeneous (weakly earthing) soils withlow water table).
- The reinforced monolithic plate (it is arranged on weak and strongly heaving soils).
What aerated concrete is better to build a house
Now discuss from whataerated concretebetter to build a house.Aerated concreteis a type of cellular concreteand is an artificial stone with uniformly distributed spherical pores with a diameter of 1-3 mm. The main components of aerated concrete are: cement, quartz sand and specialized blowing agents. When planning the construction of a private house, the choice of block type should be based on: size, geometry, density, presence / absence of a groove of the ridge system.
Aerated concrete blocks are:
- Conventional “wall” (for erection of bearing and non-bearing walls) - up to 600 mm wide;
- Partition walls (for the construction of internal walls and partitions) - up to 250 mm wide.
Are divided into brands by density:
- D400 (density is 400 kg / cubic meter);
- D500 (most popular in private sector construction);
Note that with increasing block strength, its thermal efficiency drops.
When choosing aerated concrete, you should also pay attention to the blocks with a tongue-and-groove system, the presence of which is intended to save on the adhesive solution.But the problem is that in practice this rule is valid only in cases where the blocks have an ideal geometry.
Laying aerated concrete blocks
The laying of aerated concrete blocks passes after the installation of waterproofing between the foundation and walls.As a waterproofing material is used roll (roofing material) or coating (asphalt, bitumen, coal tar) material.
Laying of external (supporting) walls of aerated concrete
Laying the first row of aerated concrete.The laying of the first row of aerated concrete begins from the highest angle of the future house.The blocks are stacked on a uniformly applied (trowel-bucket) thirty-millimeter layer of cement-sand mortar. But before you install the order (wooden rail with serifs) and the tension of the mooring cord. Each laid block is aligned with the cord-berth (if necessary, shifting by tapping with a rubber hammer) and controlled by the spirit level.
After the installation of the first row of blocks, you need to remove all existing irregularities from the horizontal surface with a special float.
For cutting additional blocks, you can use a hand (hand saw with a square) or a mechanized (band saw) tool.
Reinforcement of aerated concrete
Aerated concretehas low resistance to bending deformations of the wall, and therefore, with constant loads emanating from the base of the house increases the risk of formation of "hair" cracks on the walls of the structure. Fortunately, such cracks do not affect the bearing capacity of the masonry, but the appearance of such a wall leaves much to be desired. For this reason, it is desirable to reinforce the aerated concrete masonry during its construction.
For further work you needglue for aerated concretewhich will be used in horizontal joints and in laying additional blocks. The technology of its preparation is dictated by the manufacturer. The consumption of a dry mixture with a layer of 2 mm per cube masonry is on average 25 kg.
Manual or electric wall chaser in the masonry of aerated concrete are cut through the grooves (armored belt) with a cross section of 25 x 25 mm (at the corners of the walls the strokes are rounded). Subsequently, the created recess is cleared of dust and filled with an adhesive solution for about 2/3 of the entire available area. Well, in the end reinforcement rods (preferably corrugated) with a diameter of 8-10 mm are embedded in the glue. Excess glue is removed. Reinforcement is subject to: the first and every fourth row of masonry, the zones above the door and window openings,belt under interfloor overlapping.
Reinforcement of walls whose thickness has more than 200 mm run in two rows. Walls with a width of less than 200 mm are reinforced in one row.
Take into account that it is undesirable to use cement-sand mortar in the reinforcement, as well as lay masonry grid instead of metal rods. Mortar, as well as masonry mesh form "cold bridges", which increase the thermal conductivity of the walls of the house.
Laying the second row of aerated concrete
The device is a second row of aerated concrete blocks.It is possible to start laying the second row of aerated concrete only 1-2 hours after the completion of the first laying.The laying begins with an angular ligation of blocks (with a shift of rows of at least 100 mm). Aerated concrete is placed on a two to three millimeter layer of glue. Each unit is aligned with the cord-berth using a rubber hammer and under the control of the spirit level.
The device of window and door lintels in the wall of aerated concrete
Installation of aerated concrete jumpers takes place with the help of wooden props. The thicker side wall of the U-shaped blocks should be located on the outside of the building. This is followed by reinforcement of the opening. Three rods with a diameter of 12 to 14 mm are installed (on average) into the cavity of the blocks.After that, the cavity is poured with fine-grained concrete, which later must be compacted and leveled flush.
When erecting internal walls (interior partitions), waterproofing is laid under the base of the blocks, and their joints with external walls are equipped with sound insulation (compactor). If the seal is not used, a gap of 1-2 mm is left between the walls, which is subsequently filled with mounting foam. With the subsequentstacking blocksevery second row is connected to the main wall with brackets or anchors using galvanized punched stripes.