Overview of a septic tank for giving "Tank": how it works, the advantages and disadvantages of the system
Modern country house for comfort is not inferior to a city apartment. It is equipped with a toilet, shower, washing machine and dishwasher. At the same time the centralized sewerage is most often absent.
Septic tank for giving Tank allows you to organize a local non-volatile system for the discharge and complete treatment of domestic wastewater.
Septic tank "Tank" device
A septic tank is a sewage treatment plant in which the accumulation, settling and partial biological purification of wastewater occurs. It consists of one - three series-connected sections, the last of which is divided into two chambers.
In the second chamber there is a biofilter designed for anaerobic wastewater treatment, and a floating load that conducts filtration at the outlet of the tank.
As a result of multi-stage purification in the process of overflowing, processing by bacteria and filtration, the degree of purification reaches 78-80%. After exiting the sewage treatment plant, the effluent flows into the infiltrator installed on the ground. Here, additional treatment takes place up to 95 - 100% and discharge of the cleaned mass into the underlying soil layers, filtration fields or gutters.
In country houses most often use the devices presented in the same package. This design consists of:
- Shells, the volume of which is divided into two or three sections by partitions with overflows;
- Biofilter with polymer floating load;
- Incoming and outgoing connections;
- One or two necks with tight-fitting lids.
The number of sections in a septic tank depends on its total volume. Two chambers have small-volume septic tanks capable of processing up to 600 liters of wastewater per day (Tank-1 version). The rest are divided into three parts.
Productivity (daily volume of drainage) of single-body septic tanks, depending on the modification, is enough for servicing from one to six tenants (up to 1200 l per day).
If it is required to process more waste, then the working chambers are separate modules, each of which in this case performs its function. Thus the septic tank Tank-4 is arranged - it consists of three tanks connected by overflows.
In addition, successively adding additional capacity, you can increase the performance of the cleaning system with any execution of a septic tank Tank to the required level.
Features of the device housing
The case of the device is a monolithic cast container of ribbed polyethylene, without any seams or joints. Thanks to its rectangular shape, the septic tank is compact and stable; therefore, it is easy enough for even a non-professional to mount it.
In the upper part of the hull, one (Tank-1) or two serving hatches are made. Mounts are mounted on the sealant on the principle of papa-mama.
Ribbed walls, while remaining elastic and resilient at any temperature, increase the rigidity and strength of the structure. With proper installation able to withstand the pressure of the soil, even during frost heaving.
The ribbed surface increases the adhesion of the tank to the dense sand-cement pad surrounding it, due to which it is firmly held in the ground and does not float during spring floods. Therefore, the septic tank does not require additional anchoring during installation.
The material from which the tank is made is a strong polymer compound.It is a completely environmentally friendly, bio-friendly material. It does not decompose under the influence of microorganisms, does not react with chemicals, is not subject to soil erosion and corrosion. The service life of a polypropylene tank is at least 50 years.
How does the biofilter work?
The biofilter in the septic tank is always installed in the last chamber. It is a container in which optimal conditions are created for the growth and reproduction of bacteria. To ensure the physical possibility of settling microorganisms, the filter is filled with floating bio-loading.
The main working force of the biofilter is anaerobic bacteria, colonies of which settle on the walls and bottom of the reservoirs. Filtration bedding is products whose shape allows, at minimum sizes, to create a large area for mechanical cleaning.
Polymer elements of the floating load are lighter than water, so they float and are located at the outlet of the section with the biofilter. The material is chemically stable and absolutely safe for any aquatic organisms.
The free surface area is the main indicator of the performance of the biological load and determines the power of the entire cleaning system.
In addition to processing by hydrobionts, centrifugal separation occurs in the biofilter. The capacity of the filter itself is made in a form that allows it to work on the principle of a hydrocyclone. The inlets are arranged in such a way that the water enters at a certain angle (tangentially) and unwinds. Due to the vortex microflows, all remaining heavy suspensions are eliminated.
Wastewater treatment in a septic tank is carried out only by mechanical and biological means, without the use of any chemicals. If the structure includes three sections, then the process is accordingly divided into three stages. Each of the Stages takes place in its own work area:
- The first section is a reception.Through the sewage from the house, all household sewage flows into it and stands up. Here fermentation and mechanical separation take place - layer-by-layer separation of liquid fractions of different weight. Heavy particles sink to the bottom, light (fat, feces, etc.) rise to the surface, and clarified water remains in the middle.
- The second section through the overflow gets fluid from the middle layer of the primary container. Here she continues to wander under the action of microorganisms and to stand up - the movement is very slow, without external disturbances. This contributes to the settling of small inclusions that did not have time to precipitate in the previous settling tank.
- In the third section, water enters the biofilter. In its lower part, centrifugal separation and purification of heavy impurities from residues is carried out. A liquid is suitable to the top of the filter, the pollution of which is only biological. When passing through bioloading, where bacteria colonies are concentrated, organic matter is cleared.
The settled solid sediment formed as a result of filtration, separation and the work of bacteria is subject to periodic extraction through the sleeve of the assenisation machine.
Colonies of bacteria that live and multiply in the biological load space use organic matter dissolved in water for food. Therefore, recycling occurs naturally. The process produces harmless carbon dioxide, some volatile hydrocarbons, and water.
For removal of gases arrange ventilation, which is an essential element of the cleaning system. Otherwise, volatile elements released during fermentation and biodegradation will be accumulated in the tank and discharged through the sewer line into the domestic space. The building will fill an unpleasant smell.
Septic tanks The tank is sealed containers, biological treatment of wastewater in which is produced by anaerobic bacteria, without oxygen. These microorganisms are less effective than aerobic (used in energy-dependent systems). Therefore, the degree of purification of water from organic matter at the exit of the septic tank reaches 75-80%.Drain this into the ground is prohibited by sanitary norms.
For additional purification of wastewater after septic tank, it is necessary to use a soil pre-filtering device. These are structures in which water from a septic tank passes through a layer of rubble or gravel. All remaining contaminants settle in the filter mound.
Such devices are:
- Infiltrators - industrially made tanks without bottom (resemble an inverted bath);
- Filtration fields - drainage system;
- Filter well.
Type of construction and installation of sewage system is chosen depending on the type of soil on the site and the groundwater level. On this issue is best to consult with a specialist.When properly installed, the septic tank works efficiently both in dry weather and during spring floods and heavy rains. He is not afraid of frosty heaving and seasonal ground movement.
Advantages and disadvantages of the septic tank "Tank"
Non-volatile septic tanks “Tank” are optimally suited for the installation of an autonomous sewer cleaning system in any private house. It is especially advisable to equip them in the areas of country and country houses of seasonal or periodic residence, as well as in areas with frequent interruptions in electricity supply.
Local communications that do not require electricity for work are also used in the construction of energy-efficient buildings. Technologies to save resources are becoming increasingly popular.
The advantages of these septic tanks:
- Simple and reliable design, which is practically not subject to wear;
- Sealed and durable septic tank withstands the damaging effects of the environment and ensures reliable operation of the system;
- Lack of the components demanding periodic maintenance or repair;
- The ability to provide any desired performance by adding additional modules that can even be connected to a functioning system;
- The sewage system combining a septic tank and a dofiltration device ensures complete purification of wastewater from contamination - up to 98%;
- The service life is at least 50 years;
- The compact body of a convenient rectangular shape and low weight of the structure allow the installation of a septic tank on its own, without the involvement of specialists;
- All maintenance of the cleaning system on the basis of a septic tank Tank is to call a vacuum truck once a year;
- Acceptable price.
Septic Tank - one of the most unpretentious in operation. It is allowed to get into the system of toilet paper, food debris and a reasonable amount of household cleaners and detergents.
However, like any engineering design, a septic tank has not only advantages, but also disadvantages.
- The water leaving the septic tank should not be discharged into the ground according to sanitary standards - for its purification it is used a rubble-sand or gravel-sand filter;
- Installation flaws lead to unpleasant odors in the house, coming from the sewer;
- Sludge accumulated in the reservoir cannot be used as a fertilizer, as it may contain organic residues and harmful substances that can cause contamination of the soil and groundwater.
In order to prevent odors from appearing in the house, a ventilation riser must be built into the supply pipe. Anaerobic bacteria in the processing of waste emit methane, so the gases must be removed.Also when installing the tank should not be allowed to tilt it.
How to increase system efficiency?
Microorganisms are distributed throughout the volume of the septic tank and are concentrated in bio-loading. They enter the system along with wastewater, and, if there is a sufficient amount of organic matter, they successfully grow, multiply and eat organic components. Thanks to the bacteria in the septic tank is a constant fermentation. Due to this, there is a separation of organic matter, mineral suspensions and fatty fractions - the liquid is stratified.
The effectiveness of wastewater treatment depends on the size of the microbial population. A large selection of ready-made preparations containing bacterial colonies — bioactivators — is on the market. Periodically adding them to the system, homeowners improve the quality of cleaning. This is also effective prevention of problems arising from a decrease in the population of bacteria - an unpleasant odor, the formation of thick deposits on the walls, the hardening of silt.
Anaerobic activity contributes to the dilution of bottom sludge and a dense crust on the surface, so that you can call the assenisation service much less often - once every three years.
When is the use of a bioactivator necessary?
For the normal functioning of bacteria, it is necessary that organic matter and a sufficient amount of liquid enter the system. Accordingly, the use of industrial biological preparations is not necessary for a constantly functioning septic tank.
However, violations in operation lead to the death of the colonies, as evidenced by the appearance of an unpleasant odor. In this case, the bioactivator should be added first. Most often, such a measure is sufficient to restore normal operation of the cleaning system.
In the following cases, it is not necessary to wait for the smell, since in any case they contribute to the reduction of the microbial population.It is better to immediately add the finished biological product, which is administered:
- After a long idle time - for example, at the beginning of the summer season. If conservation was carried out properly, the bacteria in the septic tank do not die. However, their number is significantly reduced. Bioactivator helps to set up the system in a much shorter period of time than it will be in natural conditions.
- After dumping into the sewer a large number of household chemicals and disinfectants that contribute to the death of aquatic organisms.
- After freezing fluid in the septic tank. This can happen if the tank is installed without a warming layer.
Smell from the sewer also appears if a thick layer of fat deposits has accumulated on the walls of the sewer pipes and walls. Artificially added bacterial colonies break down and liquefy sediments, after which they freely flow into a septic tank.
How to make a bioactivator?
A couple of buckets (about 20 liters) of water are poured into the sewer. To biomaterial hit the septic tank, it is poured or poured into the toilet. After that, two or three times they flush the water.
Before using the liquid preparations simply shake, but the funds in tablets or granules should be made in accordance with the attached instructions. Some manufacturers recommend to dissolve the biomaterial in water, others - pour dry.
After making a bacterial preparation for two to three days control the water level in the septic tank, pouring it as needed.
What is dofiltration necessary for?
Anaerobes are not able to process organic compounds completely. They decompose complex compounds into simpler ones, which are contained in the fluid leaving the septic tank. Pouring such water into the ground, you can become the culprit of contamination of it and groundwater. To completely break down simple organics, plums are exposed to aerobic bacteria.
When arranging natural dofiltration, water from the septic tank passes through a layer of rubble or gravel, which is well saturated with oxygen. In such a filtering layer, aerobic microorganisms settle, the colonies of which grow and multiply upon the entry of nutrient organics. Thus, the last stage of complete purification of sewage in the sewer system on the basis of a septic tank Tank is carried out.
Which area is not suitable for such a septic tank?
The septic tank itself is absolutely not picky about the ground. The case is durable and sealed, the material is not subject to any impact. The design ensures reliable operation, even if the hull is constantly in the water. The presence of a sand-cement pad around the tank protects against uneven extrusion of soil layers during frost heaving.
But there are other required elements in the cleaning system. Since the pre-filtering unit assumes a good absorption of water into the ground, the high level of groundwater. According to the construction standard between the filtering bottom and the roof of a water-saturated reservoir should be at least one meter.
The second good reason is poorly absorbing clay soils, which do not allow treated effluents to flow in and below themselves. The filtration layer in such situations is in the water and does not fulfill its task: it does not release the system from the purified liquid component.
However, it is possible to use a non-volatile system in such areas. It is only necessary to choose the right installation scheme.
For the installation of sewage in close proximity of groundwater for additional purification used infiltrators, which are set above a critical level.A storage well with a pump is mounted between the septic tank and the infiltrator.
If the site is clayey soil, then for the purification of wastewater used filtration fields. Under the main filtering layer, a drainage system is arranged, water accumulates in a well with a pump and is discharged to the surface in a drainage ditch.
Installing and launching a new installation
Before starting the septic tank should be filled with water for about 60-70%. Filling is carried out at the stage of installation. Then, for about two weeks, clean water is gradually being replaced by drains. After a sufficient amount of organic matter accumulates in the reservoir, bioactivators are introduced into the sewer system.
You should not wait for the natural filling of waste microflora. It takes up to several months, and at this time the quality of water purification will be low, there may be an unpleasant smell and all sorts of problems. For example, the accumulation of deposits in the pipes and on the walls of the tank, which should not be tolerated.
Therefore, it is necessary to establish the work of the cleaning system as quickly as possible, in which the ready strains of bacteria help. Before buying, make sure that the bioactivator is designed for anaerobic septic tanks. Loading aerobes will lead to a long start.
If you are interested in the installation features of the septic tank "Tank", then we have a separate article - we recommend that you read it.
Septic Conservation Rules
If the cleaning system works year-round, then there will be no problems, even if the owners leave the house for a couple of weeks. But if it is planned to stop the flow of sewage into the septic tank for more than a month, then it is necessary to provide the bacteria with food. To do this, make in the sewage fermented milk dressing.
Preservation of a septic tank for the winter requires more attention, since it contains live microflora, which must be preserved. For this you need to take care of sufficient structural insulation. Insulation must be laid on the body when installing a septic tank. If there is no insulation, you can perform it before the onset of cold weather.
Do not do it:
- Pump out drains and flush the chambers, otherwise in the new season it will be necessary to restore the population of bacteria;
- Leaving the tank empty is a guarantee of squeezing it out of the frozen ground and ascent into the spring floods.
For the winter, the septic tank is left filled to about 2/3. This amount of liquid compensates for the pressure of the soil, and the empty space ensures that the septic tank does not break even if the contents are completely freezing.
If wells with submersible pumps are mounted in the cleaning system, the units for the winter season are suspended above the water level.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
A comic video from the manufacturer clearly shows the main components of the cleaning system with a septic tank:
Some stages of the production of septic tanks Tank. Visual measurements of the wall thickness in the section:
Septic Tank is popular in the Russian Federation and many CIS countries. It has a simple and versatile design. Block-modular cleaning system can effectively serve a small country house, a roomy cottage, and several buildings at once.