The uprising of Stepan Razin began with ordinary robberies, and ended with peasant war
Cossack and peasant movement against serfdom under the leadership of the famous Cossack atamanis the most powerful and large-scale in the XVIIcentury in the history of Russia. The uprising of Stepan Razin began on the Don and spread to the Caspian and Volga lands, covering large areas and affecting many peoples.
A sharp change in the social situation in the Cossackareas on the Don was the reason that the uprising of Stepan Razin began. Year after year the situation of peasants worsened. Fugitive peasants flocked to the Don and the Volga lands, seeking to get rid of enslavement. But even here their situation remained difficult, since the indigenous Cossacks reluctantly accepted them on their lands. This forced the "golutvynye" Cossacks to unite and engage in robbery and robbery.
The uprising of Stepan Razin began aspredatory raid of Cossacks on the Volga lands. In 1667, Razin captured the Yaitsky town on the Volga, where many Cossacks joined him. In 1668 Razinians ravaged the Caspian coast, after which they entered into a confrontation with Iran. Cossacks captured the city of Ferahabad, won a major victory over the Iranian fleet and in 1669 returned to the Don. Razin's success greatly increased his authority among the inhabitants of the Don and the Volga region, which enabled him to make up for the losses and recruit a new army.
The peasant uprising of Stepan Razinbegan in 1670. In the spring he moved to the Volga. His campaign was accompanied by spontaneous mutinies and riots of serfs, striving to free themselves from enslavement. In May, Tsaritsyn was captured. Astrakhan, Saratov and Samara opened a gate in front of the Cossacks, where many archers and townspeople passed under his command.
In the autumn, Stepan Razin's army besieged fortifiedcity of Simbirsk. At that time many local peoples joined the insurrection: Tatars, Chuvashs, Mordvins. However, the siege was delayed, which enabled the tsar's voevoda to collect large troops. The tsarist government, in a hurry, mobilized all forces to suppress the uprising and sent a 60,000-strong army to Simbirsk. On October 3, 1670, at Simbirsk, a decisive battle took place between the Cossacks and the tsarist forces, in which the rebels were defeated.
Wounded Stepan Razin faithful to him Cossackswere taken to the Don, where he was going to recruit a new army, but the proud Cossacks captivated him and gave him to the royal commanders. June 6, 1671 Stepan Razin was quartered in Moscow. However, with his death, the uprisings did not stop, many Cossack atamans continued to struggle for six months. Only in November 1671 the tsarist forces managed to take the last stronghold of the Razin people - Astrakhan.
The insurrection led by Stepan Razin1670-1671unlike his previous campaigns had alreadysharply social character, and many historians call "peasant war", since the population of the Don and the Volga region opposed the tsarist power and serfdom, fighting against the domination of power and the lack of rights of the peasantry.
Thus, the insurrection of Stepan Razin beganwith Cossack robberies and gradually resulted in a full-scale peasant movement, whose goal was to reduce taxes and duties and improve the life of the peasantry.