Types of foundation. Choosing a foundation
The construction of the foundation is the most important stage in the structure of the building, because all the load exerted on the upstream structures is transferred directly to it. Since during the operation it is experiencing serious mechanical overload, special requirements are imposed on it in terms of reliability and durability. Properly executed building foundation must be durable, have good resistance to the influence of atmospheric factors and groundwater, consistent with the life of the building, but at the same time remain economical without loss of quality characteristics. You can order the foundation for a turnkey house in Moscow and the Moscow region at https://fundamentprof.ru/. Depending on the design features, all foundations are divided into:
- Ribbon foundation. Received the most common in our country. Represent a structure that is constructed around the perimeter of the load-bearing walls. It is very durable and reliable, but it also has a significant drawback - increased material consumption. The foundation is poured in two possible ways.If the foundation is located shallowly, then first a trench is dug under it, on which walls the roofing felt is laid, then a “pillow” (a mixture of sand and gravel) is placed on the bottom and then the resulting system is poured with concrete. For large buildings and structures, this method is not suitable. Construction of the foundation for them is as follows. Dig a pit in which the prepared formwork is placed on the “cushion”. Concrete is poured into it. At the same time, all structural elements are protected from aggressive external environment with the help of hydro and vapor insulation.
- Solid foundation. They are applied on weak and easily destroyed soils, they are a system of reinforced base plates. This foundation is able to withstand very heavy loads and provides excellent protection of the foundation of the building from groundwater.
Used in cases where the pressure on the ground is less than the standard, and it is possible to replace the resource-intensive strip foundation with more economical supports.
The column foundation is made of concrete, rubble, reinforced concrete, wood and metal. Not only ready-made structures are applied, but also the method of pouring directly on the spot, into the prepared formwork.