What are the mountains?
It would seem that such a mountain? An elevated section of the territory, however, if you ask yourself what mountains there are, then you will have to classify them according to the following criteria:
- What geographical position and age of the mountain, morphology is taken into account.
- What are the structural features of the mountain, given the geological structure.
Classification of mountains according to the first criterion
The mountains are divided into Cordilleras, ridges, chains and solitary mountains, mountain systems, groups.
- Cordilleras are ridges, as well as groups of mountains andmountain systems of different ages. In the west of North America, the Cordillera area consists of the Coast Ranges, the Cascade Mountains, the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Rocky Mountains and many small ridges that lie between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in the states of the South and Nevada. In Central Asia, the Cordilleras include the Himalayas and Tien Shan. Mountain systems are a group of ridges and mountain groups that are similar in age and origin.
- Ridges are a group of mountains that aremany kilometers narrow strip. An example of a typical mountain range is the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which extend for more than 240 km in the states of Colorado and New Mexico, their width is not more than 24 km, there are many peaks, some of which reach 4000-4,300 m in height.
- A group of mountains called genetically closely relatedmountains, but this cluster does not have a clearly expressed linear structure, which is characteristic of the ridge. An example is the Mountains of Henry in Utah and Baer-Po, which are in Montana.
- Solitary mountains, usually of volcanic origin, are found all over the planet (Mount Hood in Oregon, Mount Rainier in Washington).
What are the mountains of the structure
Classifying mountains according to the second criterion takes into account endogenous processes of relief formation. The mountains are divided into:
- Volcanic mountains are the mountains forming foraccount of the accumulation of igneous masses during volcanic eruptions. Also, such mountains can arise as a result of uneven erosion-denudation processes occurring on a vast territory that undergoes a tectonic uplift, as well as folded mountains are formed due to the tectonic movements themselves.
- Folded mountains - have a very complex structure,since they consist of zones of initial folding, which are limited by huge deflections (geosynclinal belts) in which sediments accumulated. An example of folded mountains is the North America of the Appalachian Mountains.
- Lumpy mountains are large mountain ranges,which were formed as a result of tectonic uplifts along the faults of the earth's crust. As an example - the California mountains of Sierra Nevada, a length of 640 km and a width of 80 - 120 km.
- Ancestral mountains are land areas thatonce experienced a tectonic uplift as a consequence of the erosion process and acquired a mountain face. An example is the Black Hills mountains, which are in South Dakota.
- Standing plateaus - mountain landscapes in placeelevated territory, which were formed as a result of erosion-denudation processes. An example is the destruction of the high plateau of Colorado (south-west of the USA) and as a consequence the formation of a heavily dissected mountain relief. Which mountains in height, depends on the degree of destruction of the plateau.
- Volcanic mountains are spread almost everywherethe globe and there are different types. Formed as a consequence of the accumulation of volcanic masses. A picturesque example of a volcanic cone is Mount Fujii in Japan, Mayon in the Philippines, Shasta in California, Misty in Peru, and others.
Classification of mountains by origin
- The mountains are dislocation, tectonic.
- Bulk, Accumulation and bulk formations - rarely reach a significant value.
- Erosion - created due to erosion and rarely create a real mountain landscape.