What is the duty and right in philosophy and the Constitution?
Each of us in our lives has probably come acrosswith such concepts as "rights" and "duties". What do these philosophical (and not only) terms mean, in what sense should they be considered, how to apply them in practice? All these issues now arise in modern youth, boys and girls, who are becoming or are preparing to become full citizens of our state.
What is the duty in philosophy?
In the generalized sense this is one of the synonymsdebt. And in philosophy the concept of "duty" consists of the concept of "due". Cicero, for example, considered duties (officium) not in the sense of an original and abstract debt, but in the context of a person as a member of the community of Rome, and distinguished from them the main: justice and charity. In general, according to Kant's observation, the moral teaching (ethics) is completely based on this. What is the duty in European philosophy? What connects the individual with other people and the state. Officium includes the doctrine of special and general duties (Bacon). This is the obligation defined by the laws. What are the laws, such are the duties (Hobbes). And the performance of duties is subjectively connected not with fear of punishment, but with an understanding of justice. And Schopenhauer defines this action as an act, the failure of which causes others to injustice, and therefore violates their rights in this way.
Inseparability of concepts
In the rule of law, it becomes impossibleseparation of duties from rights. Roughly speaking, without some there are no others, and vice versa! This is the most important principle of our modern society as a whole. In a particular country, all this is determined by the Constitution, the Basic Law. This is expressed not only the responsibility of the individual to the whole society, but also the guarantees of statehood before the individual. Moreover, both assume mutual legal responsibility.
Rights and freedoms in the Basic Law
As already mentioned, the state is responsible formaintenance and realization of the rights and freedoms of citizens. No one can be forced to abandon them. The basic, enshrined in the Constitution of Russia, include: the rights to life, freedom, dignity, religion. They also include: freedom of speech and movement, inviolability of the home, private life and the person's identity, property rights. It is possible to allocate still traditionally the rights to education, work, rest, freedom of creativity. Separately - the right to peace and psychological comfort. All of the above rights and freedoms in no way deny or diminish other universally recognized, established by law.
First, abuse of law is prohibited. What is the duty? Everyone should respect the legitimate interests of others. Being on the territory of the Russian Federation, he is obliged to observe the Constitution of the country, other legal acts, even without being a citizen of this state. Also - pay taxes and fees established by laws. Any of us should take care of our relatives, preserve the environment, historical and cultural heritage. The main constitutional duty is also labor. Man must protect his health, form his own spiritual culture.
What is the duty to protect the Fatherland? This is a sacred duty for every citizen of Russia, enshrined in the Constitution. Upon reaching the draft age, the young man fulfills his military duty in order to ensure the security (internal and external) of the entire state.