Where should the extinguisher be located in the premises?
Compliance with fire safety rules in a considerabledegree is associated with the technical provision of facilities with appropriate equipment. This can be a means of storing materials for extinguishing fire, modular installations for water supply, barrier panels, etc. Depending on the security requirements for a particular facility, one or another scheme of equipment is chosen with protective means. However, the simplest component of this infrastructure, which is used in almost all critical facilities, is a fire extinguisher. It is simple in maintenance and operation, therefore it is widely used in various fields as an effective fire fighting tool. But in order to derive maximum benefit from its function, it is necessary to determine in advance the most advantageous placement. And the question of where the fire extinguisher should be located does not require an independent answer - there are special rules and regulations in which the requirements for the installation of such equipment are already prescribed.
General rules for selecting a fire extinguisher
A modern fire extinguisher is presented in variousversions, which allows you to accurately choose a model for specific needs. The choice takes into account the type and class of equipment, as well as the quantity. That is, the physicochemical properties of the fire extinguishing mixture are taken into account, and the area of coverage of the danger zone is also calculated. It is especially important to remember the limitations that apply to certain types of such devices. For example, powder models are not recommended for use in rooms where electrical appliances are installed, which are under the load of the network. In cases of servicing of workplaces with employees, the issue of safe extinguishing from the point of view of minimizing harm to people is especially significant. Where should the extinguisher be located in the room with people? The choice should be closed, but at the same time accessible to the staff sites. On the one hand, the partially closed layout of accommodation allows to prevent risks arising from a breach of the fire-extinguisher's tightness, and on the other - it should not prevent the rapid spread of fire.
Categories of premises in terms of fire safety
There are 5 categories of premises thatdifferent requirements for the use of fire fighting equipment. Mainly they are distinguished by the area, which affects the requests to the power of the fire extinguisher. Other aspects may also influence the classification, including the nature of the operation or the use of specialized equipment. Categories AB suggest working with flammable gases and flammable liquids. Where should the fire extinguisher be located in the premises of the enterprise working with such materials? In this case, it is important to calculate the distance to the potential source of ignition: the equipment should be 30 m from the same flammable substances. As a rule, these are rooms, the area of which can be 200-400 m2, so there should not be any special difficulties in choosing a place. If the matter concerns objects of categories G and D, carbon dioxide extinguishers may be required. They are located in a distance from the sources of danger at a distance of 70 m. By the way, the area of the premises of these categories varies from 800 to 1800 m2.
Checking the fire extinguisher before installation
To allow the extinguisher to operateit is necessary to thoroughly check its integrity and efficiency. In fact, this is the first planned inspection, which in the future should be carried out at least once every 5 years. So, during the inspection, the responsible officer should assess the tightness of the surface condition of the hull, inspect it for dents and blisters. It is important to pay attention and trace corrosion, even the slightest spot in the future can lead to the destruction of the structure and the unfitness of the device for operation. The auxiliary functional parts on the body are also checked. These can be gaskets, cuffs and other seals and fittings, on which the ergonomics of the product depends. Then you can proceed to the answer to the question of where the fire extinguisher should be located. The use of this fire fighting tool involves not only the organization of the installation site to ensure convenient handling, but also compliance with the requirements for the protection of its design. Therefore, the safety of the fire extinguisher itself is a paramount factor that must be taken into account when placing it.
The safety of the fire extinguisher in the installation site
In this part, much depends on whichconditions are exploited. External factors of influence are conditioned both by requirements to a microclimate, and features of working process at the enterprise. Often, because of the inability to change the conditions for using a fire extinguisher, the most protected type of fire extinguisher is selected irrespective of the effectiveness of its function in a particular case. But, of course, there should always be room for a compromise option, since you can not save on security. In any case, the rules for the content of fire extinguishers in most cases exclude the direct effect of heat flows, sunlight, mechanical pressure, etc. If it is planned to build a room with increased vibration indices, then the question of where the fire extinguisher should be located in the room is decided taking into account inclusion of additional damping devices. These can be structures with shells that soften the vibrations that affect the shell of the extinguisher.
The basic rules for placing fire extinguishers
When a suitable extinguisher is selected andits technical and operational status is checked, it is possible to start installation. The most common manual models are recommended to be fixed in cabinets and on brackets to walls. In both cases, the instructions on the fire extinguisher body should be facing the outside so that, if necessary, the user can read them without delay. Also, the shut-off mechanism must have a seal. If a cabinet is used to hold the equipment, then its door must be sealed. It has already been mentioned that the questions about where the fire extinguisher should be located are resolved taking into account the type of premises. In this sense, one of the key factors determining the position of the device will be the locations of fire-hazardous substances. But also the fire extinguisher should be removed from the functional areas, openings, windows and doors used. In other words, areas where any physical activity is possible can not be used to install a fire extinguisher.
Influence of mass of fire extinguisher on the placement
There is a fundamental separationFire extinguishers by weight - from and up to 15 kg. The most common compact manual models that are allowed to carry. The main rule of their installation concerns the maintenance of the altitude level - as a rule, they are recommended to be installed at 1.5 m from the floor. Now another question - where should the fire extinguisher, the mass of which exceeds 15 kg, be located? If the total weight corresponds to the designated digit or exceeds it, then the limiting height limit already applies. In such cases, the same cabinets or supporting brackets can be installed at a height not exceeding 1 m.
Where and how should the water type fire extinguisher be located?
For this category of extinguishing mediaspecial rules apply. By the way, this applies not only to water, but in most modifications and foam models. Fire extinguishers of this type are sensitive to temperatures, both increased and negative. This does not mean that you should limit their use in places with unstable temperature conditions, but you need to prepare to change the storage conditions of devices. For example, in cold weather in unheated rooms such equipment is removed. Typically, a critical point is considered to be a mode with a temperature below 5 ° C. Therefore, to comply with the rules for the use of water and foam extinguishers in the room should be provided and a thermostat with the registration of current indicators of the microclimate.
Accommodation on high fire danger facilities
Objects that are associated withincreased risks of fire and explosion, should contain special areas for fire fighting equipment. It can be, for example, the chemical industry enterprises. In such cases, the question of where the fire extinguisher should be located is particularly acute. Characteristics of the device often become the determining factor for choosing a specific installation site - for example, carbon dioxide models with a jet length of less than 3 m and water vapor content above 0.006% of the mass should be as far removed from the electrical equipment. To this end, whole complexes are organized in the form of shields with barriers that allow to minimize possible harmful effects on the construction of fire extinguishers. In this case, the functions of the devices remain standard and are not corrected.
Where should the fire extinguisher (RZD) be located?
In railroad cars canused fire extinguishers of all common types, including powder, foam, air-emulsion, etc. Most often, the installation is carried out from the side of the vestibule in small corridors. It does not matter whether the tambour is used or not. In addition, carbon dioxide models can be fixed on the partition of the dining room - that is, on the opposite side of the relatively distributing cabinet. And the number of devices in the car depends on how and its technical rooms are completed. The question of where the fire extinguisher should be located in the car also affects the engine room, boiler rooms and other office spaces. In each case, the installation is carried out according to general rules with exposure to the altitude level.
Safety rules when handling a fire extinguisher
Models of extinguishers that are used oncan harm human health. For example, some modifications can have mutagenic and carcinogenic effects on the body. Therefore, in the operation of the device should be used and personal protective equipment, which protects against damage to the skin, gastrointestinal tract and mucous membranes. In addition, questions about where the fire extinguisher should be located and its application from the viewpoint of maintaining environmental safety are also solved with the expectation of safe disposal of charges. For example, the foam solution of a fire extinguisher used must be quickly liquidated so that after a discharge into the sewer, a local channel cleaning is performed.
Virtually no production andthe public object of the urban infrastructure can not do without modern means of ensuring fire safety. The effectiveness of special equipment is determined not only by the basic characteristics, but also by the organization of its use. Where should the fire extinguisher and its appointment be located - closely related issues. For example, the standard powder model is perfectly suited for working with combustible mixtures, solvents and chemically active liquids. Therefore, it can be safely applied at oil refineries. And carbon dioxide modifications are sensitive to electrical appliances, so when installing them, you should take into account the location of the sockets.